Allergy Testing Timmins - Asthma literally translates to and means "panting" in the Greek language. It refers to a chronic inflammatory sickness of the lungs and airways. The characteristic asthma symptoms are variable and recurring, consisting of bronchospasm and reversible airflow obstruction. Signs of asthma consist of: chest tightness, wheezing, coughing and shortness of breath. Asthma is clinically classified depending upon the frequency of signs, peak expiratory flow rate and forced expiratory volume in one second. Asthma could be further categorized as atopic or extrinsic or non-atopic or intrinsic.
Asthma is believed to be triggered by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Treatment of acute symptoms is often by using an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist, for example salbutamol. Individuals who suffer from asthma try to avoid triggers including irritants and allergens. Individuals who have asthma normally find relief by inhaling corticosteroids. Treatments utilizing Leukotriene antagonists are less useful compared to corticosteroids are usually less favored.
The diagnosis is generally made based on the pattern of symptoms as well as the response to therapy over time. There has been a significant increase in asthma since the 1970s. According to statistics of 2010, throughout the globe, more than 300 million people are affected worldwide and 250,000 asthma fatalities were recorded in 2009. The prognosis for asthma is normally good because of the ability to correctly handle this condition with therapy.
The classification of asthma is based upon its severity in people, the frequency of indications, if the symptoms occur during nighttime, predicted percent of FEV1 and FEV1 variability, how intermittent and often the attacks happen. The asthma can be considered mild persistent if the attacks take place less than twice a week and not daily. Like for instance, if they occur 3 to 4 times per month. One more category will be moderate persistent. These attacks could happen once a week but not nightly. Daily attacks are considered to be severe persistent occurring usually 7 times per week, perhaps several times per day.
Now, there is no concise way for categorizing various subgroups of asthma, even though the condition is classified based on seriousness as listed above. Cases of asthma respond to various treatments. There is still much research ongoing to be able to find ways to categorize subgroups and what treatments respond well.
Asthma is not classed as a chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, though this sickness is a chronic obstructive condition. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease include bronchiectasis, emphysema and chronic bronchitis for example. These diseases are irreversible. In asthma, the airway obstruction is reversible, however, if not treated, the chronic lung inflammation during asthma could become an irreversible obstruction due to airway remodeling. Asthma likewise affects the bronchi and not the alveoli as in emphysema.
Asthma attacks are usually defined as an acute asthma exacerbation. Symptoms of an asthma attack comprises: shortness of breath, wheezing and chest tightening, although some people present mainly with coughing. In several cases, are motion may be impaired so greatly that no wheezing is heard. During an attack, there may be a paradoxical pulse, that means a pulse that is stronger during exhalation and weaker during inhalation. The individual may have a blue tinge to their nails and skin resulting from lack of oxygen. Certain neck muscles like for example the sternocleidomastoid and scalene muscles might become more pronounced as the individual struggles for air.
The peak flow rate or PEFR is =200 L/min or =50% of the best possible flow rate in a mild exacerbation. Moderate is defined as between 80 and 200 L/min or 25 percent and 50 percent of the predicted best whereas severe is defined as = 80 L/min or =25% of the predicted best.
Amongst top athletes, asthma can be exercise induced. During the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta, a study of the athletes showed that 15 percent of athletes had asthma and 10 percent were on asthma medication. The most common sports which have a high occurrence of asthma consist of cycling, long-distance running and mountain biking. Diving and weight-lifting show a somewhat lower incidence. There has been proof suggesting insufficient vitamin D levels are associated with severe asthma attacks. Normally, exercise induced asthma is treated successfully using a short-acting beta2 agonist.
People exposed to certain workplace elements, may suffer from asthma. These reported asthma attacks are called occupational respiratory disease. Most cases however, are not reported or recognized as occupational asthma. The highest percentage of cases occurred during fabricators and labourers, followed by professional and managerial specialists as well as individuals in technical, sales and administrative support jobs. Most of these cases of asthma were in the services and manufacturing businesses. Some reactive chemicals are usually connected with work-related asthma as well as things including animal proteins, enzymes, natural rubber latex and flour. One study reported that 15-23% of new onset asthma cases that occurred in adults are work related.
Asthma is caused by environmental and genetic factors. These matters influence how serious the asthma is as well as how it responds to medication. There have been studies showing associated illnesses like for instance eczema and hay fever are connected. The strongest risk factor for developing asthma is a history of atopic disease. The more allergens an individual reacts to on a skin test, the higher the odds of them having asthma.
Much allergic asthma is connected with sensitivity to indoor allergens. In the West, our normal housing styles also allow greater exposure to indoor allergens. There have been mixed findings to the prevention studies aimed at the aggressive reduction of airborne allergens inside a house with babies. Like for example, strict dust mite restriction has lessened the chance of allergic sensitization to dust mites and moderately reduces the possibility of developing asthma until the age of 8. Although, similar studies with exposure to cat and dog allergies have shown that exposure during the first year of life was found to reduce the possibility of allergic sensitization and of developing asthma later in life.
There have been studies within the United States and the United Kingdom exploring the association between the development of asthma and obesity. Different elements connected with obesity could play a part in the pathogenesis of asthma. For instance, because of a build-up of adipose or fatty tissue, a decreased respiratory function may occur. This can be partly because adipose tissue contributes to a pro-inflammatory condition and this has been linked with non-eosinophilic asthma. Adult onset asthma has also been related with periocular xanthogranulomas and Churg-Strauss syndrome.
Click to Download the pdf